In which country Abacus originated
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An abacus is a manual aid to calculating that consists of beads or disks that can be moved up and down on a series of sticks or strings within a usually wooden frame. The abacus itself doesn’t calculate; it’s simply a device for helping a human being to calculate by remembering what has been counted.
History[ edit ] The earliest known depiction of a phalanx-like formation occurs in a Sumerian stele from the 25th century BC. Here the troops seem to have been equipped with spears , helmets , and large shields covering the whole body. Ancient Egyptian infantry were known to have employed similar formations. Homer used the term to differentiate the formation-based combat from the individual duels so often found in his poems. The principles of shield wall and spear hedge were almost universally known among the armies of major civilizations throughout history, and so the similarities may be related to convergent evolution instead of diffusion.
Traditionally, historians date the origin of the hoplite phalanx of ancient Greece to the 8th century BC in Sparta , but this is under revision. It is perhaps more likely that the formation was devised in the 7th century BC after the introduction of the aspis by the city of Argos , which would have made the formation possible. This is further evidenced by the Chigi vase , dated to BC, identifying hoplites armed with aspis, spear and panoply.
Two of the basic strategies seen in earlier warfare include the principle of cohesion and the use of large groups of soldiers. This would suggest that the Greek phalanx was rather the culmination and perfection of a slowly developed idea that originated many years earlier. As weaponry and armour advanced through the years in different city-states, the phalanx became complex and effective.
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With its invention dating back to 2, BC, it’s older than numbers! Originally used by ancient merchants as a calculator, these days an abacus makes a great visual, hands-on way to explore early counting and arithmetic concepts.
In Roman abacus several grooves were carved into the board along which counters were moved up and down. One counter was laid in each of the upper grooves, while four in each of the lower grooves. Some additional counters were laid on the right to facilitate the calculation of fractions. The normal method of calculation in ancient Rome, as in Greece, was by moving counters on a smooth table.
Originally pebbles calculi were used. Later, and in medieval Europe, jetons were manufactured. Marked lines indicated units, fives, tens etc. This system of ‘counter casting’ continued into the late Roman empire and in medieval Europe, and persisted in limited use into the nineteenth century. Due to Pope Sylvester II ‘s reintroduction of the abacus with very useful modifications,it became widely used in Europe once again during the 11th century This abacus used beads on wires; unlike the traditional Roman counting boards; which meant the abacus could be used that much faster.
Writing in the 1stcentury BC, Horace refers to the wax abacus, a board covered with a thin layer of black wax on which columns and figures were inscribed using a stylus. One example of archaeological evidence of the Roman abacus , shown here in reconstruction, dates to the 1st century AD. It has eight long grooves containing up to five beads in each and eight shorter grooves having either one or no beads in each. The groove marked I indicates units, X tens, and so on up to millions.
The beads in the shorter grooves denote fives —five units, five tens etc.
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By Pearl Blay on Friday, March 30, 4 Comments Wearing an abacus bracelet is an exceedingly clever idea because a knitter or crochet enthusiast can easily keep count of stitches. Sure you can buy those little plastic row counters but they are small and will only fit knitting needles not crochet hooks. Functional pieces of jewelry like counting bracelets are much prettier alternatives.
Home of the Knitting Abacus. Shown above is her bracelet using rainbow colors. Her design is reminiscent of how traditional wooden or bamboo Chinese abacus work. Her corded beads are movable with one row representing individual knitted or crochet row. The other row represents 10’s of worked rows. The best way to understand how it works is to watch her video.
Other jewelry designers also have different ways to make a bracelet countable. Jeanette of Jed’s Joy makes pretty double strand bracelets with one crucial difference. There is a small beaded ring which is moved to position so it marks how many rows have been done. Jessica of the Crafty Chaos made this lovely black and pink design featuring two small beaded rings one for each row.
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Aug 09, · This confirms that mental abacus users are not using verbal methods in their calculations, and suggests that motor memory might somehow be involved, though more experiments on that point are required.
Share this article Share The head of the Academy, Chie Takayanagi, said that whereas people could resort to calculators nowadays, using an abacus sharpened their concentration and memory. In Japan, the best abacus users can enter competitions and some children do not even need to finger their beads as they can picture the abacus in their heads to make mental calculations. Ahead of the game: Japanese school children are more advanced at Maths than their British counterparts Japanese teachers said that children in the West often found numbers hard to grasp because they were presented in too abstract a way, while the abacus provided a concrete picture of them.
They also learned their times tables like nursery rhymes, and sang them to tunes they remembered into their adult lives. She said scientific tests carried out in China using a brain scanner showed those who had been schooled in the West just used the computational side of their brains while those from the East used the visual parts as well, She said she had learned maths using cuisenaire rods, a Western version of the abacus. But everything was simple because it was visual.
All aspects of the visual should be encouraged, and the abacus is one.
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The Sumerians developed the earliest known writing system – a pictographic writing system known as cuneiform script, using wedge-shaped characters inscribed on baked clay tablets – and this has meant that we actually have more knowledge of ancient Sumerian and Babylonian mathematics than of early Egyptian mathematics. Indeed, we even have what appear to school exercises in arithmetic and geometric problems.
As in Egypt , Sumerian mathematics initially developed largely as a response to bureaucratic needs when their civilization settled and developed agriculture possibly as early as the 6th millennium BCE for the measurement of plots of land, the taxation of individuals, etc.
Math Exercise on the Abacus Suanpan – Abacus. The abacus is an ancient calculator still used in China and other Asian countries. In Chinese it is called a “Suanpan.” It is a frame divided into an upper and lower section by a bar called the “beam.” The abacus can.
Share this article Share The origins of the ring are unknown. However, the beads are far too small to be moved using fingers, according to ChinaCulture. Researchers in Norway made the discovery after studying the language of the tiny Pacific island of Mangareva. They noticed that Mangarevans had words for numerals one through to But for numbers 20 to 80 they used a binary system, with separate one-word terms for 20, 40 and Researchers believe the system helped keep track of this intricate trading network.
The Chinese abacus is thought to have been created by a famous mathematician Cheng Dawei of the Ming Dynasty between and A typical elementary abacus has 10 parallel wires strung between two boards on a frame, with nine beads on each wire.
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For centuries, people in Asia have used an ancient counting tool to perform mathematical operations. Dating back to at least the 12th century, this simple counting device has been passed down through the centuries with its original design and purpose virtually unchanged. Introduction to the Chinese Abacus A traditional suanpan or Chinese abacus consists of a rectangular wooden frame divided by a horizontal bar into upper and lower sections. A series of vertical wires or rods strung with beads extend from the top to the bottom of the frame.
Each wire in the abacus frame has seven beads, with two in the upper deck and five in the lower deck. Each of the two upper deck beads has a value of 5, while the lower deck beads each have a value of 1. The wires represent the powers of ten. Beginning at the right of the abacus, the first wire represents values below 10, the second wire represents values from 10 to 99 and the third wire represents to This pattern continues across the remaining wires, allowing a traditional abacus with 13 wires to represent very large numbers.
Sciencing Video Vault Chinese Abacus Instructions The first step when using a Chinese abacus is to clear it, which is done by placing the device flat on a table and moving the upper deck beads to the top of the frame and the lower deck beads to the frame bottom.
The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, used small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9, which were then places in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system, very similar to the one we use today – indeed it was the first such number system, adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West – and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy.
Written numbers, however, employed the slightly less efficient system of using a different symbol for tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. This was largely because there was no concept or symbol of zero, and it had the effect of limiting the usefulness of the written number in Chinese. Lo Shu magic square, with its traditional graphical representation There was a pervasive fascination with numbers and mathematical patterns in ancient China, and different numbers were believed to have cosmic significance.
There is an unproved information, that similar to abacus device was used in Babylonia as early as BC. The word abacus itself is a Latin word, which comes from Greek άβακασ (board or table).
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A History of the Abacus Keith F. As the revolution in computing advances, it is appropriate to step back and look at the earliest practical aid to computation—the abacus. Its formal western origins lie with the Greeks and the expansion of trade in the seventh century BC, and its design and application showed remarkably little change over the following two thousand years. A measure of the usefulness of the abacus is seen by the fact that it survived the advent of algorism by some six centuries but its major significance for western culture lies in its perfect and seminal representation of the decimal system.
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