Age of the Earth: strengths and weaknesses of dating methods
Why almost all scientists believe in evolution: It is impossible to prove that the theory of evolution is absolutely true. The theory maintains that plant evolution, animal evolution and the major geological changes to the earth unfolded over billions of years. Thus, the full theory cannot be demonstrated in the laboratory. Processes like the rise of mountains and erosion are simply too slow to be observed during one person’s lifetime. Elements of the theory e. But nobody was on hand to observe what the world and its life forms looked like hundreds of millions of years ago.
Relative dating Studies of strata , the layering of rocks and earth, gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been through many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer. Lomonosov’s ideas were mostly speculative.
But there are serious dissenting scientific voices on evolutionary theory, and conventional earth dating techniques, and a growing Creation Science community make a good case for a Young Earth. Various dating clocks, such as the earth’s decaying magnetic field and population growth suggest a young earth, and the classical radiometric dating assumption of Uniformitarianism has to be questioned given .
Nobody agrees on exactly what that allegory is. See, [adopts the voice of a man smoking an herbal cigarette outside of a screening of Mother! Aronofsky himself has been pretty explicit about this. How else to describe the moment when Mother gets fed up at the end of the movie and lights the house on fire, other than as a bit of accelerated global warming? Another common interpretation , and the one that has the most obvious hooks in the movie.
The Gleeson brothers are Cain and Abel.
Age of the Earth
Therefore it should come as no surprise that creationists at the Institute for Creation Research ICR have been trying desperately to discredit this method for years. They have their work cut out for them, however, because radiocarbon C dating is one of the most reliable of all the radiometric dating methods.
This article will answer several of the most common creationist attacks on carbon dating, using the question-answer format that has proved so useful to lecturers and debaters. How does carbon dating work? Cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are constantly converting the isotope nitrogen N into carbon C or radiocarbon. Living organisms are constantly incorporating this C into their bodies along with other carbon isotopes.
This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed. This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples.
The research, detailed in the February 8 issue of the journal Science, adds to the ongoing scientific debate over what exactly killed off the dinosaurs. That debate, which once revolved around the question of whether the culprit was an asteroid or volcano-induced climate changes, has evolved to consider the possibility that perhaps multiple environmental factors were involved.
Using a high-precision dating technique on tektites—pebble-sized rocks formed during meteorite impacts—from Haiti that were created during the event, the team concluded that the impact occurred 66, , years ago—slightly later than previously thought. When error limits are taken into account, the new date is the same as the date of the extinction, the team says, making the events simultaneous. Renne said the new findings should lay to rest any remaining doubts about whether an asteroid was a factor in the dinosaurs’ demise.
Evidence now suggests massive volcanic eruptions in India that predated the asteroid strike also played a part, triggering climate changes that were already killing off some dinosaur groups. For example,"nobody has ever found a non-avian dinosaur fossil exactly at the impact layer,” Renne said in an email. But in the s, father-son team Luis and Walter Alvarez, a physicist and planetary scientist, respectively, presented a bold new theory.
After discovering that a layer of clay that’s found throughout the world and that coincided with the end of the Cretaceous period is enriched in iridium—an element rare on Earth but common in space rocks—they proposed that a meteorite wiped out the dinosaurs. An asteroid of that size striking the Earth would have had devastating consequences, including destructive pressure waves, global wildfires, tsunamis, and a"rain” of molten rock reentering the atmosphere.
Additionally,"much additional particulate matter would have stayed afloat in the atmosphere for weeks, months, perhaps years, blocking incoming solar radiation and thus killing plant life and causing catastrophic drops in temperatures,” explained Hans-Dieter Sues, a paleontologist at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. Hybrid Theory for Dinosaur Extinction The once-abandoned volcanism theory has seen a revival of sorts in recent years, however, as a result of fresh insights about a period of sustained ancient volcanic activity in India and the discovery that dinosaur diversity may have already been declining before the asteroid strike.
The debate now is"whether the Chicxulub impact was the ‘smoking gun,’ as many researchers claim,” Sues said,"or one of several causative factors, kind of like ‘Murder on the Orient Express.
The Grand Canyon and the Age of the Earth
The great flood in the history of geology[ edit ] Animals boarding Noah’s ark Edward Hicks painting Main article: History of geology In pre-Christian times, fossils found on land were thought by Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes , Xanthus and Aristotle , to be evidence that the sea had in past ages covered the land. Their concept of vast time periods in an eternal cosmos was rejected by early Christian writers as incompatible with their belief in Creation by God.
Among the church fathers, Tertullian spoke of fossils demonstrating that mountains had been overrun by water without explicitly saying when.
Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 1. CHAPTER 7 – DATING METHODS PART 1 are still used in an attempt to postulate long ages for earth’s history: (12) Astronomical dating. In the above quotation, Spieker suggests that radiodating is worthless and only fossil strata dating theories are correct.
How long has this planet been here? Ask most Christians this question and you will likely receive a quick, self-assured answer. All would be well if you could count on receiving the same answer! However, some will very quickly tell you that the earth was created during creation week and can be no more than six to ten thousand years old. Other Christians will tell you, with just as much confidence, that the earth is 4.
This is no minor discrepancy! What adds even more to the confusion is the fact that you can find both opinions within conservative evangelical circles.
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon Dating
Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils.
Dating the earth based on decay. Problem: it is unknown if radioactive materials decay at the same rate NOW as they did in the PAST. Problem: Theory also ASSUMES EVOLUTION — or that we all evolved and were not created.
The land of the Wandjina is a vast area of about , square kilometres of lands, waters, sea and islands in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia with continuous culture dating back at least 60, years but probably much older. Here, traditional Aboriginal law and culture are still active and alive. The Worora, Ngarinyin and Wunumbul people are the three Wandjina tribes — these tribal groups are the custodians of the oldest known figurative art which is scattered throughout the Kimberley.
Perhaps what is most interesting about their figurative art painted on rocks and in caves is the way in which they have represented the Wandjinas – white faces, devoid of a mouth, large black eyes, and a head surrounded by a halo or some type of helmet. The ancient paintings have received all manner of interpretations from stylized representations of people or even owls, to ancient astronaut theories which suggest that extraterrestrial beings visited Earth tens of thousands of years ago and had direct contact with the inhabitants.
Some believe that the extraterrestrials even played a direct role in creation, which is reflected not only in the Dreamtime stories of the Aboriginals but also the myths and legends of many ancient civilizations around the world. One could be forgiven for thinking that there is indeed a remarkable similarity between the Wandjinas and the stereotypical image of an extraterrestrial which we see time and again in art, movies and witness accounts.
And many raise logical questions such as, why were the Wandjinas painted with white skin if it was representing another Aboriginal, all of whom had black skin? Why were the eyes always painted so disproportionate to the face and nose? And why were they all painted without a mouth? But what is even more surprising is the oral account of the Wandjinas which has been passed from generation to generation as all of the Aboriginal Dreamtime stories have.
How Old is the Earth: Scientific Age of the Earth
This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end-product. In addition, there is “common lead, “which has no radioactive parent lead
Watch video · Radiometric dating and the age of the earth; Carbon in coal suggests ages of thousands of years and clearly contradict ages of millions of years. For your young earth theory to be be correct it would contradict much of what the standard model .
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al, Bipedal activities made up a significant part of the positional behavior of this primate Kohler and Moya-Sola, Gorilla and human DNA only differs by 2.
How Science Figured Out the Age of Earth
The Disappearance of a Viking Greenland Colony. Our Earth is Hollow. The Greenland colony thrived for several centuries, but then as Europe became embroiled in war and the disease of the plague, the Norwegians lost contact with their Arctic colonies in Iceland and Greenland.
Topics included the sudden appearance of fossils, the complexity of the earliest canyon fossils such as the trilobites, the age of the earth’s magnetic fields, the role of continental drift in the onset of the flood, where does the ice age fit into a young-earth model, water- canopy theories, carbon dating, and the dating of the Grand Canyon.
But where evidence has survived — from entombed Egyptian mummies, to the burial mounds of horsemen of the Siberian Plain, to Paleolithic tattoo implements found in prehistoric caves in Spain — it would appear that tattoos were indeed a feature of prehistoric cultures. We know from studying indigenous peoples in the modern era that tattoos have not been merely decorative, rather, they were charms for protection, amulets for good luck, marks of shame or glory, symbols of faith, proof of maturity or readiness for marriage or battle.
They served the sensual, erotic, and emotional aspects of the psyche, providing a source of power, and perhaps more importantly, a reminder of the tattooed citizen’s social duty. Animals were the dominant tattoo motifs in ancient times, and represented personal or clan totems, sometimes imbuing the believer with its spirit. If it was a case of ‘mind over matter’, it’s a psychic feat that today’s tattoo aficionado still engages in.
From the jungles of Borneo to the tattoo studios of L. Mysterious and powerful, this relationship of inner to outer – the skin being the dividing membrane — is nothing less than the psychic origin of tattoo. An examination of the most ancient tattoo cultures should shed light on this ‘imaginal’ world from where all tattoo motifs originate. Due to the lack of preserved skin from ancient times – mummified bodies being exceedingly rare – the journey in search of the earliest tattoos finds us on our knees examining fragments of clay figurines that display tattoo-like etchings.
Detectives may even pick up the trail in a stanza of ancient poetry, or resort to examining myth. From Ancient Greece comes the famous story of Helen of Troy, in which the legendary beauty is abducted by the Trojan, Paris. For his protection, Paris was tattooed as a charm against the arrows of Helen’s jealous husband. Alas, the resulting Trojan Wars saw Paris killed in the end.
Creation Science Rebuttals, Answers in Genesis, Are Dating Techniques Accurate
The supervillain is finally taking matters in to his own hands as he tries to obtain all six Infinity Stones. These rare artifacts are linked to six fundamental forces that control the universe. When Thanos steps out of the shadows, as he promised in the end credits scene of Avengers:
Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is the attempt to interpret and reconcile geological features of the Earth in accordance with a literal .
Slowly and painstakingly, geologists have assembled this record into the generalized geologic time scale shown in Figure 1. This was done by observing the relative age sequence of rock units in a given area and determining, from stratigraphic relations, which rock units are younger, which are older, and what assemblages of fossils are contained in each unit. Using fossils to correlate from area to area, geologists have been able to work out a relative worldwide order of rock formations and to divide the rock record and geologic time into the eras, periods, and epochs shown in Figure 1.
The last modification to the geologic time scale of Figure 1 was in the s, before radiometric dating was fully developed, when the Oligocene Epoch was inserted between the Eocene and the Miocene. Although early stratigraphers could determine the relative order of rock units and fossils, they could only estimate the lengths of time involved by observing the rates of present geologic processes and comparing the rocks produced by those processes with those preserved in the stratigraphic record.
With the development of modern radiometric dating methods in the late s and s, it was possible for the first time not only to measure the lengths of the eras, periods, and epochs but also to check the relative order of these geologic time units.
The method may not be perfect, but it is the best we have for dating trees. Even though both are less than 5, years old, they are the two oldest living organisms on earth. Their ages easily fit the creationist point of view, but leave loose ends for the evolutionist.
Nonetheless, stratigraphy and radiometric dating of Precambrian rocks have clearly demonstrated that the history of the Earth extends billions of years into the past. Radiometric dating has not been applied to just a few selected rocks from the geologic record.
The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks. Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in “zeroing” laboratory instruments.
It’s just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise.